Laser processing technology is an advanced manufacturing technology, and laser cutting is a part of the application field of laser processing. Laser cutting is an advanced cutting technology in the world at present. Because it has the advantages of precision manufacturing, flexible cutting, special-shaped processing, one-time forming, high speed and efficiency, it has solved many problems that cannot be solved by conventional methods in industrial production. Laser can cut most metal and nonmetal materials.
The hardness of sheet metal material is relatively large, and the ordinary cutting process in the production and processing link is difficult to reach the standard. Laser cutting uses high temperature performance to cut sheet metal. After the laser beam is sent out, it will accurately reach the designated cutting position, and will be concentrated together without affecting other positions. The cutting range of the beam is fixed, and precise regulation can be achieved in technology.
The requirements for accuracy in sheet metal processing and production are very strict, and the final finished product will not be put into use once there is an error. The temperature rises in a short time to reach the melting point of the sheet metal material to achieve cutting. During the melting process, the temperature continues to rise, and finally evaporates in the form of steam, and the material appears to be cut. There will be no vibration and other influencing factors during production and processing, and processing quality control will be more convenient, so there will be no error in cutting accuracy, which will save time. This is the main reason why this technology is widely used in sheet metal processing and production. Before cutting, the cutting point should be determined. At this starting point, the latest cutting task will be carried out, and the moving time should also be calculated in detail, Too long staying time at a certain point will cause excessive width of the cutting edge, which is not conducive to safe use.
Path control is carried out through computer equipment, and no error will occur during formal cutting. The automatic control system also needs the supervision of technicians to observe the parameters obtained from feedback and take emergency measures when errors are found, otherwise product damage or unreasonable cutting parameters will cause quality problems. After cutting, obvious cutting lines can be observed on the surface of the material, and holes will be formed at the initial laser irradiation position, which can be used as the reference standard for path observation.
Compared with other traditional cutting methods, laser cutting has many advantages, which are summarized as follows:
The cutting gap is narrow and has good cutting accuracy;
Fast cutting speed and small heat affected zone;
The laser cutting surface is of good quality, the cutting seam edge is vertical, the cutting edge is smooth, and the welding can be carried out directly without correction;
The cutting edge has no mechanical stress, no shearing burrs and chips;
There is no tool loss and contact energy loss in laser cutting, so it is not necessary to replace the tool;
Laser cutting can easily cut hard and brittle materials, such as glass, ceramics, PCD composite sheets and semiconductors; It can also cut soft and elastic materials, such as plastic, rubber, etc;
The beam has no inertia and can be cut at high speed;
With the characteristics of laser, it can realize multi station operation and easy to realize NC automation.