Today's industrial manufacturing, industrial processing, aerospace industry, medical industry and other manufacturing are inseparable from machine tool processing and five axis processing technology, which can be said to be the contribution of CNC machine tools. Today, digital control technology is more widely used in the digital globalization.
Speaking of numerical control machine tools, we have to mention numerical control technology, which is an automatic control technology and a method of controlling objects with digital signals. And numerical control machine tool is the machine tool that adopts numerical control technology or is equipped with numerical control system. The Fifth Technical Committee of the International Federation of Information Processing (IFIP) defines CNC machine tools as follows: CNC machine tools are machine tools equipped with a program control system, which can logically process the programs specified by using numbers or other symbol coding instructions.
Machining parts on CNC machine tools mainly depends on the processing program. Unlike ordinary machine tools, it is unnecessary to manufacture, replace many molds and fixtures, and do not need to readjust the machine tools frequently. Therefore, the CNC machine tool is suitable for the occasion where the processed parts are frequently replaced, that is, it is suitable for the production of single piece and small batch products and the development of new products, thus shortening the production preparation cycle and saving the cost of a large number of process equipment.
The machining accuracy of CNC machine tools can generally reach 0.05-0.1MM. CNC machine tools are controlled in the form of digital signals. Every time the CNC device outputs a pulse signal, the moving parts of the machine tool move a pulse equivalent (generally 0.001MM). In addition, the reverse clearance of the machine tool's feed transmission chain and the average error of the screw pitch can be compensated by the CNC device. Therefore, the positioning accuracy of CNC machine tools is relatively high.
When machining the same batch of parts, using the same tool and processing program on the same machine tool under the same processing conditions, the tool path is identical, the parts have good consistency and stable quality.
CNC machine tools can effectively reduce the processing time and auxiliary time of parts. The spindle sound speed of CNC machine tools has a wide range of five axis linkage machining centers and feed rates, allowing the machine tools to perform powerful cutting with large cutting amounts. CNC machine tools are entering the era of high-speed machining. The rapid movement and positioning of moving parts of CNC machine tools and high-speed cutting have greatly improved productivity. In addition, it can be used together with the tool magazine of the machining center to realize continuous processing of multiple processes on a single machine tool, reduce the turnover time between processes of semi-finished products, and improve the productivity.
The CNC machine tool is adjusted before processing, input the program and start it, and the machine tool can automatically and continuously process until the end of processing. The operator only needs to input and edit programs, load and unload parts, prepare tools, observe processing conditions, inspect parts, etc. The labor intensity is greatly reduced, and the labor of machine tool operators tends to be intelligent. In addition, the machine tool is generally combined, which is clean and safe.
The processing of CNC machine tools can accurately estimate the processing time in advance, and the tools and fixtures used can be standardized and modernized. It is easy to realize the standardization of processing information. It has been organically combined with computer aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM), which is the basis of modern integrated manufacturing technology.